Voluntary Offer Agreements

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These agreements allow states to exercise their right to peaceful nuclear energy under the NPT, without raising concerns that they could actually develop nuclear weapons in violation of the treaty. In addition to strengthening safeguards through the adoption of the Additional Protocol model in the late 1990s and 2000s, the IAEA has also developed methods to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of implementing safeguards for states where CSAs and APS are in force. The IAEA has launched a „state-level approach“ to assess state compliance with protection agreements in a comprehensive manner and not on the basis of a facility of establishment. It has also begun to adopt „broader conclusions“ for states in order to facilitate the burden of implementation by applying the approach at the national level. The five nuclear-weapon States of nuclear non-proliferation of nuclear weapons have entered into safeguard agreements for some or all of their peaceful nuclear activities. As part of these voluntary supply agreements, agencies are notified by the State concerned to the IAEA and offered for the application of safeguard measures. The IAEA applies safeguards under voluntary supply agreements for nuclear materials at selected facilities. Non-NPT member states can also sign safeguard agreements with the IAEA, known as point protection agreements. India, Pakistan and Israel, for example, have placed civilian nuclear facilities under the protection of the IAEA and India has an additional protocol in place.

The five nuclear-weapon states of the nuclear non-proliferation reactor (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) are not required to enter into IAEA protection agreements under the non-proliferation regime. However, all five have signed voluntary offer guarantee agreements that allow the IAEA to apply protections for the equipment in selected eligible entities. This is the case with nuclear materials and civilian sites. The five nuclear-weapon States also signed additional protocols to the voluntary supply guarantee agreements. All non-nuclear-weapon States belonging to the NPT, as well as States parties to regional treaties establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone, are required to enter into comprehensive protection agreements with the IAEA. These agreements are concluded on the basis of INFCIRC/153 (corrected). A State undertakes to accept the IAEA`s safeguard measures for all nuclear materials in all peaceful nuclear activities on its territory, under its jurisdiction or under its control. Under these agreements, the IAEA has the right and duty to ensure that safeguards are put in place on all nuclear materials to ensure that these materials are not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Safeguards are being implemented in three non-NPT states – India, Pakistan and Israel – on the basis of one-off agreements with the IAEA. As part of these agreements, the IAEA implements security measures to ensure that nuclear materials, facilities and other objects defined under the safeguard agreement are not used for the manufacture of nuclear weapons or military promotion, and that these objects are used exclusively for peaceful purposes and not for the manufacture of nuclear explosive devices. „This is the first in a series of international agreements that must be negotiated, agreed and ratified with a number of third countries, and the practical terms of the UK protection regime must be finalised, including recruitment, training, systems and equipment.